Complete Guide for Starting & Operating a Business.
Poultry farming in India is a very profitable business. The poultry business requires proper planning and management. If you want to start a poultry farm then this poultry farming guide for beginners will be helpful to you. Discover how to start poultry farming in India with minimum investment.
Before discussing commercial poultry farming in India, let me first explain what does poultry farming means. Generally, poultry farming means, raising various types of domestic birds to produce foods like eggs and meat.
Nowadays, most people are using poultry as the synonym for chickens. Because chickens are the widely raised poultry birds. Along with chickens ducks, geese, turkeys, guinea fowl, quails, peacocks, etc. are also popular domestic poultry birds. In India, various types of poultry birds are being raised for a long time ago.
Basic Requirement of Poultry Farming
Poultry farming is of different types such as duck rearing, rearing chicken, quails, turkey, emu, broiler, etc. However, the principles and practices underlying are the same. For successful poultry management, the checklist includes proper site selection, site building, chalking the rearing plan, proper knowledge of using the equipment, procuring the various quality inputs from different resources, managing the day to day poultry affairs, constructing the houses, and managing the timely marketing.
Choosing a Poultry Farm Site
The farm site must be away from the chaos and hustle-bustle of the city. It should be a calm and pollution-free environment. The farm must have adequate, clean, and fresh drinking water sources nearby. Also, the site must be free of poultry enemies and predators like foxes and leopards. The site must be easily accessible from main roads. In other words, transportation must be easy and not very difficult. The local markets must also be easily accessible.
Housing for Poultry Farming
Poultry shelters are the next important factor after farm sites in poultry rearing. The shelters must be raised adequately to prevent the risk of flooding. It should be spacious enough to permit free movement and running of the birds. Also, the shelter must be adequately ventilated and protected from sunlight. It is advisable to construct the shelters in a south-facing direction. In this way, the birds are not only protected from the harsh sunlight but also permit the circulation of fresh, clean air. There should be adequate drainage facilities in the shelter. Also if there is more than one shelter then the distance between two of them must be at least 50 feet. This would ensure proper ventilation and non-accumulation of ammonia inside the shelters. The entrances in the shelter must be fastened properly. Also, there should be fencing around the shelter to secure the birds. The shelter design however depends on the breed of poultry, type of production, etc.
For commercial poultry production, good quality, highly nutritious food is a must. The rate of productivity in birds is very high. They very quickly convert their feed into food products. Regularly, they need about 38 nutrients in adequate amounts for their regular diet pattern. The feed can be given in different forms like crumbles, mash, or pellets. Mash is the most economical, commonly used, and easy to prepare the feed. Pellets are prepared by subjecting the mash feed to heat treatment under pressure. As a result, the pathogens in the feed are destroyed. This enables the birds to digest the feed and also minimize the wastage. Crumbles are the expensive form of feed wherein the pellets are broken down into granules. In addition to providing the birds with feed, they must be given an ample amount of clean and fresh drinking water.
Broiler Poultry Farming
Broiler segment in poultry is one of the fastest-growing segments in recent times. It is the tender, young meat of male or female chicken. Its weight ranges from 40 grams to 1.5 Kg and it can be a maximum of six weeks old. India produces 2.47 million metric tonnes of broiler making it the fifth largest broiler producer in the world. This growth is mainly due to the interposition of the corporate sector that threw emphasis on the scientific rearing of broilers. Owing to the considerable growth, farmers have access to high-quality chicks, professional guidance, medicines and vaccines, sophisticated equipment, etc.
Advantages of Broiler Farming
- Rearing period lasts up to maximum 6 weeks.
- Low initial investment
- Their feed conversion efficiency is very high which means the amount of feed needed for body weight gain is much lower.
- Demand for poultry meat is higher than compared to goat or sheep meat.
- The investment returns are faster since the rearing period is only 6 weeks.
Disadvantage of Broiler
- Broilers are reared commonly in cages resulting in cage weakness.
- Cages under dense conditions can result in lack of air circulation.
- Birds would suffer from fatty liver syndrome, leg problems, etc.
Poultry farming in India is a good way to start agriculture since it requires less space. The birds are capable of increasing soil fertility which is an important factor for cultivation. Also, poultry waste is useful for organic agriculture and has demand in the market.