Modern Dairy Farming
Complete Guide for Starting & Operating a Business
Commercial dairy farming is profitable as the demand for milk in our country is 12.52 million metric tons per year but the production is about 2.28 million metric tons per year and the deficit is 10.24 million metric tons yearly. About 50,000 small or big dairy farms are established to meet up this demand.
Dairy farming with hybrid cows is a very profitable business now. So farmers need to learn about improved dairy or cattle management, proper breeding, balanced diet, preventing disease, primary care, and modern farming methods to get better production.
Features/Characteristics of Good Cow
A cow with a commendable quality is essential for successful dairy farming. Some features are listed below.
- Head should be light and small.
- Forehead will be wide.
- Bright eyes and great interest in food.
- The front of the body will be light, heavy at the back and well structured.
- Attractive body structure and loose body formation.
- The formation of chest bone should be well structured.
- Skin should be thin, no unnecessary fat under the skin, color of the skin and hair will shiny and smooth.
- Nipple will be large, well organized with body size.
- Four nipple will be equal in distance from one another.
- The milk vein will be thick and clear.
Farm management is a strategy through which farm resources, chances and time can be adjusted. Benefits of well farm management in dairy farming includes the followings.
- Parsimony of asset.
- Profit within a short time.
- More production within short period.
- Prevent the wastage of energy and labor.
- Profit in dairy farming production.
The characteristics of a cow inherited from its father or mother. The quality of cows can be high but it will not produce highly if they aren’t managed well. Keeping the cows and their house clean daily, comfortable shelter, regular food supply, proper breeding, disease prevention, and management is the issue to improve dairy farming.
If you want to keep the cow at family or farm, better accommodation is needed. Adequate cattle housing or cowhouse is necessary for dairy farming to keep the cow free from predators and some adverse condition such as storms, rain, cold and heat, other natural hazards, misery, insects, wild bird, and thief. According to our climate, it would be better if the house becomes south faced. It will ensure a sufficient flow of fresh air and light inside the house. The condition of the room should not wet in any circumstances. It will be better if the floor of the cowhouse is carpeted with brick. To keep it free from odor, fly, mosquito, the floor needs to wash occasionally with germicide. The cowhouse may be of two types. Open or free house and fixed or common room.
Under this method, the cow can be observed by tying a chain of iron. The feeding of cow can be done from the same place.
Taking milk from cows is very easy in this system because the cow always tided up with a chain. The animals are in a safe place in adverse weather conditions. Suitable for artificial reproduction. Cows can be raised in a fixed and small place.
The cost of this method is pretty high. Easy movement is not available in this system, so the cows can’t take any exercise as a result it suffers from different types of diseases. As the cows tied all over the day so the floor is always wet.
Fixed House Design
In this method the cows are always tied with the chain. For this reason, it is very difficult to clean the cowhouse regularly. Common cowhouse is two types.
One Row Cowhouse
This cowshed are build to hold a small amount of cows in a row. Partitions are made to keep the cow separate from each other. The partitions are 90 cm in length and 45 cm in height. Every cow needs 165 cm place for stand and 105 cm side space. The food pot for cow should 75 cm and the channel 30 cm. Increase or decrease the place of the cowhouse in this system according to the number of cows. The ceiling should one aloft and a height of 300 cm.
Two Row Cowhouse
These types of houses are suitable for the cultivation of many cows in a small place. In this method, the cows can keep in two ways, face to face and the exterior system. The cows are arranged in a face to face arrangment. 120 cm space is there to feed the cow. 5.5 feet space for standing and 3.5 feet side space is required.
- Feed and water can serve at the same time.
- More light is available while milking the cows.
- Cows feel comfortable in their own place.
- The caretaker can move easily inside the house.
A cow should serve feed according to the method mentioned here. Green grass 20-30 kg, 15-20% protein containing grainy feed mixture. Provide salt 50-60 g daily and clean water as much as needed. Always keep a filled pot of clean and fresh water in front of the cow.
Care & Management
Without proper care and management, it is not possible to keep the cows vigorous and healthy. As a result, the expected amount of milk and meat can not be gained. And dairy farming will be a non-profitable business.
Milk the cows twice a day. Once in the dawn and another time in the evening equally. Before milking, the nipple and hand of the person should be cleaned properly with fresh water and antiseptic. A farmer can also use a milking machine to collect milk.
To improve or develop the condition and production of the cow it should meet reproduction with a proper plan. The selected bull of which mother, grandmother gives more milk, is best for the artificial insemination process. So when the cow wants to meet, it should meet with a high productive bull.
Keeping Farm Record
Determining profit and loss of farm depends on the good keeping list of income and expenditure. For proper management, plans and targets have to make first. It is a must to keep an essential record like farm products, accounting, sales, births, deaths, and the correct information for the artificial insemination program.
Open House Methods
In open space method 5-6 square meters space is required. 2.5-3 square meters for growing calf and 10-12 square meters for pregnant cow.
At last if you want to be successful in dairy farming you have to take proper care of your cattle. They have to provide shelter, food, water, and medicine according to their demands. Thus one farmer can be successful in dairy farming.